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Cataclysm: Bright Nights

Binding new type

Adding new type to the doc generator without binding internals

If a C++ type has not been registered in the doc generator, it will show up as <cppval: **gibberish** >. To mitigate this problem, you can add LUNA_VAL( your_type, "YourType" ) in catalua_luna_doc.h, and the generator will use YourType string for argument type.

Binding new type to Lua

First, we need to register the new type with the bindings system. It needs to be done for many reasons, including so that the doc generator understands it, and the runtime can deserialize from JSON any Lua table that contains that type. If you don’t you’ll get a compile error saying Type must implement luna_traits<T>.

  1. In catala_luna_doc.h, add declaration for your type. For example, if we’re binding an imaginary horde type (which is a struct), it will be a single line near the top of the file:

    struct horde;

    Complex templated types may need to actually pull in the relevant header, but please avoid it as it heavily impacts compilation times.

  2. In the same file, register your type with the doc generator. Continuing with the horde example, it’s done like this:

    LUNA_VAL( horde, "Horde" );

    While C++ types use all kinds of style for their names, on Lua side they all should be in CamelCase.

Now we can actually get to the details. The bindings are implemented in catalua_bindings*.cpp files. They are spread out into multiple .cpp files to speed up compilation and make it easy to navigate, so you can put yours into any existing catalua_bindings*.cpp file or make your own similar file. They are also spread out into functions, for the same reasons. Let’s register our horde type, and put it in a new file and a new function:

  1. Add a new function declaration in catalua_bindings.h:
    void reg_horde( sol::state &lua );
  2. Call the function in reg_all_bindings in catalua_bindings.cpp:
    reg_horde( lua );
  3. Make a new file, catalua_bindings_horde.cpp, with the following contents:
    #ifdef LUA
    #include "catalua_bindings.h"
    #include "horde.h" // Replace with the header where your type is defined
    void cata::detail::reg_horde( sol::state &lua )
        sol::usertype<horde> ut =
                luna::constructors <
                    // Define your actual constructors here
                    horde( const point & ),
                    horde( int, int )
                    > ()
        // Register all needed members
        luna::set( ut, "pos", &horde::pos );
        luna::set( ut, "size", &horde::size );
        // Register all needed methods
        luna::set_fx( ut, "move_to", &horde::move_to );
        luna::set_fx( ut, "update", &horde::update );
        luna::set_fx( ut, "get_printable_name", &horde::get_printable_name );
        // Add (de-)serialization functions so we can carry
        // our horde over the save/load boundary
        reg_serde_functions( ut );
        // Add more stuff like arithmetic operators, to_string operator, etc.
  4. That’s it. Your type is now visible in Lua under name Horde, and you can use the binded methods and members.

Binding new type to Lua (using Neovim’s regex)

Binding classes/structs to Lua by hand can be quite tedious, which is why another way to bind a class is by transforming its header file. For the third step of the second part from previously, it’s possible to use Neovim’s built-in regex and C++ macros to bind the class for us.

  1. Make a copy of the class definition.
  2. Apply both: %s@class \([^{]\)\+\n*{@private:@ %s@struct \([^{]\)\+\n*{@public:@
  3. Manually remove the constructors/unwanted methods at the beginning.
  4. Delete all private/protected methods: %s@\(private:\|protected:\)\_.\{-}\(public:\|};\)@\2
  5. Remove }; at the end of the class definition.
  6. Delete public labels: %s@ *public:\n@
  7. Delete comments: %s@\( *\/\*\_.\{-}\*\/\n\{,1\}\)\|\( *\/\/\_.\{-}\(\n\)\)@\3@g
  8. Unindent until there is zero base indentation.
  9. Turn method definitions into declarations: %s@ *{\(}\|\_.\{-}\n^}\)@;
  10. Push most method declarations into a single line: %s@\((\|,\)\n *@\1@g
  11. Remove default values: %s@ *= *\_.\{-}\( )\|;\|,\)@\1@g
  12. Remove overriden/static methods/members and usings: %s@.*\(override\|static\|using\).*\n@@g
  13. Remove templates: %s@^template<.*>\n.*\n@@g
  14. Remove virtual tag: %s@^virtual *@
  15. Check if all lines end in a semicolon: %s@\([^;]\)\n@\0@gn
  16. Count how many functions there are: %s@\(.*(.*).*\)@@nc
  17. Push first found function to the end: %s@\(.*(.*).*\)\n\(\n*\)\(\_.*\)@\3\1\2
  18. Now you’ll want to repeat step 16 for the number of matches in step 15 minus one. For Neovim, input the match count minus one, ’@’, then ’:’, e.g. ‘217@:’ repeats the last command 217 times.
  19. Clean up new lines: %s@\n\{3,}@\r\r
  20. Wrap methods into a macro: %s@\(.*\) \+\([^ ]\+\)\((.*\);@SET_FX_T( \2, \1\3 );
  21. Wrap members into a macro; make sure to select which lines to affect first: s@.\{-}\([^ ]\+\);@SET_MEMB( \1 );
  22. Make the previously multi-line method declarations span multiple lines again: %s@\(,\)\([^ ]\)@\1\r \2@g

Now what’s left to do is to take the chunk of text and use it in a Lua binding. Continuing with the horde example, this is how the code should look like with these macros:

#ifdef LUA
#include "catalua_bindings.h"
#include "catalua_bindings_utils.h"

#include "horde.h" // Replace with the header where your type is defined

void cata::detail::reg_horde( sol::state &lua )
    #define UT_TYPE horde
    sol::usertype<UT_TYPE> ut =
        luna::constructors <
            // Define your actual constructors here
            UT_TYPE( const point & ),
            UT_TYPE( int, int )
            > ()

    // Register all needed members
    SET_MEMB( pos );
    SET_MEMB( size );

    // Register all needed methods
    SET_FX_T( move_to, ... ); // Instead of ..., there'd be the type declaration of the method.
    SET_FX_T( update, ... );
    SET_FX_T( get_printable_name, ... );

    // Add (de-)serialization functions so we can carry
    // our horde over the save/load boundary
    reg_serde_functions( ut );

    // Add more stuff like arithmetic operators, to_string operator, etc.
    // ...
    #undef UT_TYPE // #define UT_TYPE horde

This method of binding to Lua lacks template method bindings and may be broken: compiler errors, linker freezes, so it’s best to assume these bindings will be broken by default, only needing slight fixes / manual additions.

Binding new enum to Lua

Binding enums is similar to binding types. Let’s bind an imaginary horde_type enum here:

  1. If enum does not have an explicitly defined container (the : type part after enum name in the header where it’s defined), you’ll have to specify the container first, for example:
      // hordes.h
    - enum class horde_type {
    + enum class horde_type : int {
  2. Add the declaration to catalua_luna_doc.h
    enum horde_type : int;
  3. Register it in catalua_luna_doc.h with
    LUNA_ENUM( horde_type, "HordeType" )
  4. Ensure the enum implements the automatic conversion to/from std::string, see enum_conversions.h for details. Some enums will already have it, but most won’t. Usually it’s just a matter of specializing enum_traits<T> for your enum T in the header, then defining io::enum_to_string<T> in the .cpp file with enum -> string conversion. Some enums won’t have the “last” value required for enum_traits<T>. In that case, you’d have to add one:
      enum class horde_type : int {
    -   zombies
    +   zombies,
    +   num_horde_types
    Note that this only works for “monotonic” enums, i.e. ones that start with 0 and don’t skip any values. In the example above, animals has implicit value of 0, robots has implicit value of 1 and zombies has implicit value of 2, so we can easily add num_horde_types, which will have correct and expected implicit value of 3.
  5. Bind enum fields in reg_enums function in catalua_bindings.cpp:
    reg_enum<horde_type>( lua );
    This uses the automatic convertion from step 4, so we have equal names between JSON and Lua.

Binding new string_id<T> or int_id<T> to Lua

Binding these can be done separately from binding T itself.

  1. Register your type T with the doc generator if you haven’t already (see relevant docs).
  2. Replace LUNA_VAL from step 1 with LUNA_ID.
  3. Ensure your type T implements operators < and ==. It’s usually easy implement them manually, and can be done semi-automatically with macro LUA_TYPE_OPS found in catalua_type_operators.h.
  4. Ensure your type T has a null string_id. You can add one if it doesn’t exist in string_id_null_ids.cpp. Use the MAKE_CLASS_NULL_ID macro if T is defined as a class, MAKE_STRUCT_NULL_ID macro otherwise.
  5. Ensure your type’s T string_id has obj() and is_valid() methods implemented. These methods are implemented on a case-by-case basis. Checking other string_ids as example is recommended.
  6. In catalua_bindings_ids.cpp, add the header where your type T is defined:
    #include "your_type_definition.h"
  7. In reg_game_ids function, register it like so:
    reg_id<T, true>( lua );

That true can be replaced with false if you only want to bind string_id<T> and don’t care about (or can’t implement) int_id<T>.

You may get linker errors at this stage, e.g. about is_valid() or NULL_ID() methods, which are for various reasons not implemented forall string or int ids. In this case, you’ll have to define these manually, see relevant docs on string_id and int_id for more info.

And that’s it. Now, your type T will show up in Lua with Raw postfix, string_id<T> will have Id postfix, and int_id<T> will have IntId postfix. As example, for LUNA_ID( horde, "Horde" ), we’ll get:

  • horde -> HordeRaw
  • string_id<horde> -> HordeId
  • int_id<horde> -> HordeIntId All type conversions between the 3 are implemented automatically by the system. Actual fields and methods of T can be binded to Lua same way as usual.